Kesalingmengertian dalam Rumpun Bahasa Lamaholot di Pulau Lembata

Heppy Silaen, Renhard Saupia

Abstract


This study investigates which Lamaholot lects can be categorized as distinct, unintelligible languages and which speakers can understand each other and thus would be considered dialects of a single language. This issue has been blurry for decades (Eberhard et al., 2023; Edwards et al., 2019; Elias, 2017; Keraf, 1978). This study applies a participatory approach using dialect mapping (Anderbeck, 2018; Hasselbring, 2012), Lexicostatistics (Keraf, 1978), and observation. The data shows that (a) Ile Ape is understood by all Lamaholot lects (second best) except Lamalera and Levuka. (b) West Lembata (Bour) lect claims that they speak their lect with other Lamaholot which indicates that their intelligibility is high. This claim is lexicostatistical 65%; (c) Lewo Eleng lect understand Ile Ape however the lexical similarity based on Keraf (1978) is 54%. This research concludes that Ile Ape is asymmetrically intelligible to Lembata South, Lembata West, and Lamalera.

 

Abstrak

Studi ini menganalisis bahasa Lamaholot yang dapat dikategorikan sebagai bahasa yang berbeda, yang tidak dapat dimengerti, serta penutur mana yang memiliki kesalingmengertian, sehingga akan dianggap merupakan dialek dari bahasa yang sama. Fenomena ini masih menjadi misteri dalam beberapa dekade (Eberhard et al., 2023; Edwards et al., 2019; Elias, 2017; Keraf, 1978). Penelitian ini menerapkan pendekatan partisipatoris dengan menggunakan pemetaan dialek (Anderbeck, 2018;(Hasselbring, 2012), Leksikostatistik (Keraf, 1978), dan observasi. Data menunjukkan bahwa (a) Ile Ape dimengerti oleh semua dialek Lamaholot (terbaik kedua), kecuali pada komunitas Lamalera dan Levuka (b) dialek/bahasa Bour di Lembata Barat berbicara dengan bahasa masing-masing, dengan 65% kemiripan berdasarkan leksikostatistik; (c) Lewo Eleng memahami Ile Ape, tetapi kesamaan leksikal berdasarkan Keraf (1978) adalah 54%. Penelitian ini  menyimpulkan bahwa Ile Ape memiliki kemengertian asimetris dengan Lembata Selatan, Lembata Barat, dan Lamalera.


Keywords


Kesalingmengertian; Lamaholot; Leksikostatistik; Pemetaan Dialek; Dialektologi

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.26499/bahasa.v5i2.654

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